Level of programming languages

programming languages are developing day by day and they are categorized in 5 generation until now


Level of programming languages
All over the world, language is the source of communication among human beings. Different countries have different languages. The machine (computer) doesn't understand our common language. To interact with the computer we should send instructions in a way the computer is supposed to understand. We use some specific language to communicate and write a program on the computer.
The programming language is a special language that we use to communicate with machines and computers.A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks.in another way, There are many programming languages in the world such as
C, C++, C#, Ada, Pascal, COBOL, Mat lab, Java, Python, Basic, Perl, Python, Ruby, etc. Each language has a unique set of keywords and a special syntax for organizing program instructions.
These languages are classified in level according to their working pattern. They are categories into two-level.
1) Low-level programming language.
2) High-level programming language.

LOW-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE:

Low-level languages are closer to machine architecture. Low-level language is called machine dependent programming language because a program written in one platform cannot be executed in another platform. It provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture. Low-level language is very hard to understand and program. There are lots of instruction sets and a programmer should understand all of those instruction sets and also available sets of registers and internal computer architecture too.
Low-level programming languages are sometimes divided into two categories: first generation (machine language), and second-generation (assembly language).

1) Machine Language (1st generation):

Machine language is a collection of binary digits or bits (0, 1) that the computer reads and interprets. Machine language is the only language a computer is capable of understanding. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers.
 
2) Assembly language (2nd generation):

Machine level language is very complex as it has to be written in 0's and 1's form. So there evolved another Programming language to simplify the complexity of programming and is known as Assembly language. Assembly languages are quite simpler than machine language because 0's and 1's are replaced by short abbreviated English words called mnemonics. ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, HALT, NEG, INC, etc. are some examples of mnemonics. It is still slow and Machine dependent.

HIGH-LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE:

High-level computer languages give formats close to the English language and the purpose of developing high-level languages is to enable people to write programs easily and in their own native language environment (English). High-level languages are basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes. Each instruction in the high-level language is translated into many machine language instructions thus showing one-to-many translation. Since high-level language is not understood directly by machine, the codes and instruction written in this language are first converted using translators (compiler or interpreter). It is independent of the machine and fasts that’s why it can be run on any computer.
High-level languages are generally categorized into two basic groups, Procedural language or Third generation language and Problem-oriented language or Fourth generation language. There is a new member who has been added to this level and this is called Natural language or fifth generation.

1) Procedure Oriented Language (3rd generation):

It is based on the concept of modularity. The entire program is divided into different modules, which further consists of different procedures called functions or subroutines. This language focuses on the procedures to find the problems rather than instructions. It is a general-purpose language. Keywords are used to write instructions that are more flexible then first and second-generation programming languages.

Example: They are also categorized into two: procedural language(C, COBOL (imperative, but since 2002, object-oriented.), FORTRAN( multi-paradigm, structured, imperative (procedural, object-oriented), generic), ALGOL(imperative, structured programming), PL/I, BASIC, Visual Basic), object-oriented language (Java, JavaScript, C++, C#, Eiffel). C is also called a middle-level language as it is close to a low level but its basic is built-in focusing high level.

2) Problem-Oriented Language (4th generation):

Problem-oriented language is also known as application-specific and is used to solve specific problems. This language is result-oriented and lets the user specify what the output should be, without describing all the details of how data should be manipulated to produce the result. Codes are re-useable, have standard math symbols, faster than the third-generation language.

Example:Python(functional, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, meta programming,functional programming or procedural style),Perl,Ruby,Panther,XBase++,MatLab,SQL,PL/SQL,SciLab,Visual Data Flex, XQuery, XVL etc.

3) Natural Language (5thgeneration):

Natural language is a concept in modern technology in which instructions are given to the computer as the way much similar to how general people use to communicate.

Example: Prolog, OPS5, Mercury, and Backus’s FP.

Happy Coding


0/Post a Comment/Comments