Fire safety and security system project using Arduino

Project Definition

In this project, we implemented some safety features that can reduce the damage as much as possible when a building catches fire. Our model has a fan that will turn on when the smoke detector detects carbon monoxide and brings the carbon monoxide out of the building and a water pumping system that will spray water.

For the Security system, we designed a safe with a keypad & we need to use a password to lock our safe.

List of Components:

  1. MQ-2 gas sensor: MQ-2 gas sensor has a high sensitivity to LPG, Propane, and Hydrogen; it also could be used for Methane and other combustible steam; it is low-cost and suitable for different applications.
  2. DC 12V Fan: Works as an exhaust to remove poisonous gas from the premises.
  3. Submersible Water Pump: For sprinkling water in the case of fire and extinguishing it.
  4. IRFZ44N MOSFET: To make sure the water pump gets enough current. It amplifies the low input current from the digital pins of Arduino Uno with the help of an external DC 12V supply.
  5. 1 KΩ resistor: To reduce the high current flow to the gate pin of IRFZ44N.
  6. Buzzer: Beep sound producer to make noise when smoke is detected
  7. Arduino Mega/UNO: The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560.
  8. Keypad: The 4x4 matrix keypad is usually used as project input. It has 16 keys in total, which means the same input values.
  9. Servo motor SG90: A servo motor is an electrical device that can rapidly push or rotate an object. If you want to rotate an object at specific angles or distances, you use a servo motor.

Giving connection of the keypad with the servo motor with Arduino:

Connect the keypad to the Arduino digital pins 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Servo motor to digital pin 11, and connect ground and source. Connect the LEDs to digital pins 12 and 13 of the Arduino. 

Testing door lock with keypad and servo motor
Fig: Testing door lock with keypad and servo motor

When we press the password on the keypad, the green led will light up, and the servo motor will rotate if the password is correct. But if the password is wrong, the red led will be turned on, and the servo motor will not rotate. To lock the system again, we must press the ‘*’ or ‘#’ button in the keypad lock.

Giving connection to the MQ-2 gas sensor with Arduino UNO and buzzer:

The voltage the sensor outputs changes according to the smoke/gas level in the atmosphere. The sensor outputs a voltage that is proportional to the concentration of smoke/gas.

In other words, the relationship between voltage and gas concentration is the following:

- The greater the gas concentration, the greater the output voltage

- The lower the gas concentration, the lower the output voltage

Connection with water pump motor and Arduino:

Arduino likely will not handle the power any water pump would need, not to mention it is under voltage. For this, we considered a separate power source for the pump and a Hi-power control transistor. The IRFZ44N MOSFET was a perfect match to amplify the current and make our motor run.

Connection of MOSFET IRFZ44N with the moto
Fig- Connection of MOSFET IRFZ44N with the moto

Connections with DC Fan:

The fan is connected directly to the digital pin. It turns ON when smoke is detected. 
Connection of Arduino UNO with dc fan
Fig –Connection of Arduino UNO with dc fan

Arduino code for Fire safety and security system project:


After testing the fire protection and security system circuit connections in Arduino UNO, it is time to put all the connections in the Arduino MEGA, powered by a USB cable connected to a laptop. The code on the Arduino IDE is then uploaded to Arduino mega. 

We will then bring some smoke near the MQ-2 gas sensor, and then the voltage value will rise above the threshold value, the buzzer will start making a sound, the water pump motor will sprinkle water, and the dc fan will turn ON. This process will keep working until the voltage value doesn’t fall below the threshold value.

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